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Everything you need to know about turbochargers



Turbocharger, or turbo as it is commonly referred to, is a common word among automobile enthusiasts. Most Americans have come to associate the word turbo with high automobile speed. Considering the work that’s turbochargers do, it’s an apt association. 

With the recent impact of racing movies like fast and furious and death race, the concept of turbocharging cars is more popular than ever before. A lot of people have taken to improving their cars with turbos from Goldfarb Inc and other similar stores. 

Turbochargers are induction machines that increase the efficiency of the internal combustion in a car’s engine by forcing more air into the combustion chamber. Typical engines require atmospheric pressure to help air suction into the combustion chamber. With Turbochargers, the forced air suction triggers a proportional amount of fuel, the combustion of which makes more power available for the driver. 

Turbochargers are not popular just because they increase the speed of a car; they’re also well-loved because they improve engine fuel efficiency. Turbos are connected in such a way that they take in waste power from a car’s exhaust and use it to compress air before letting it out into the combustion chamber. This ensures that every joule of energy is used up before being passed off as waste. Incidentally, the energy efficiency of turbos also makes them great for reducing emissions from cars.

Car manufacturers also love turbo because it helps them utilize smaller and lighter engines while achieving high energy efficiency. In Europe over 75% of the cars to be produced in 2020 are expected to have turbo engines. The USA is expected to hit similar numbers of turbo engine cars in 5 years from then. 

It is legal to install turbos in most states in the US provided your car stays below the emission limits. Turbochargers can be used in both gasoline and diesel-powered cars. Since they’re more common in diesel engines, they’re also commonplace in trucks. It’s, however in aircraft that they find the most use. They are crucial to the aerodynamics required for flight. 

How Turbochargers work

The exhaust of cars contains hot gases coming out speed. These gases contain heat and kinetic energy that is typically let out into the atmosphere as waste. Turbos  make use of this hot gas to compress the air that it sucks in. They then push this air into the engine cylinders, allowing them to burn more fuel and produce more power. 

That’s the easy explanation. To really understand how a turbo works, you have to take a look at its most essential parts. The parts are typically replaceable and can be substituted to improve performance. Here are the most important parts of a turbine: 

  • Turbine: a turbine is essentially a fan that is placed along the path of the exhaust stream. When the hot exhaust steam flows past it, it rotates the turbine. This rotational speed can go as fast as 250,000 rpm. The motion from the turbine is used to generate motion in the compressor. The characteristics of the turbine, especially the size and number of blades, have a significant effect on the efficiency of a turbocharger. 
  • Compressor: the compressor’s job is to increase air intake into the combustion chamber. It is made up of an impeller (another fan) a diffuser and a volute housing. The impellers blades draw in air as they rotate. This air is transferred to the diffuser where it is compressed and finally sent into the combustion chamber through the volute housing. 
  • Centre Hub Rotating Assembly: it contains the shaft linking the compressor impeller and the turbine to transmit motion from one to the other. 

Types Of Turbochargers 

In a bid to improve efficiency, turbos have come in a few different designs over time. Here are some of the popular ones:

  • Twin-turbo: this design involves placing two Turbochargers side by side either in series or in parallel. In parallel, both the turbine of turbochargers are each fed by half of the exhaust’s effluent. On the other hand, the series configuration requires one turbo usually at a lower velocity feeding into another turbo of a predetermined speed. 
  • Twin scroll turbo: also known as a divided turbo, it typically contains two exhaust gas inlets and two nozzles (pressure outlets). The design can be made to have a smaller, sharper angle that reduces response time or a larger, less angle to increase performance.
  • Variable geometry turbo: this category of turbo uses movable vanes to regulate the airflow into the turbine, therefore, allowing for optimal use. 

Advantages of Turbochargers

  • Increased power: turbos increase the airflow into the combustion chamber. This, in turn, causes a proportional increase in fuel combusted, thereby making more power available per second to the car driver. Using a turbocharger, you get more power output from the engine on every stroke of the piston than without one. 
  • Increased Fuel efficiency: using a turbo with an engine typically results in more fuel consumption per piston stroke. While that is true, it also means that a smaller engine can be paired with a turbocharger to generate similar results as a bigger engine. In practice, a turbocharger can save up to 10% of fuel consumption. 
  • Cleaner emissions: Since the hot gases in the exhaust, it ensures that the fuel is thoroughly burnt. This resulting gas that is passed out is significantly cleaner than from a regular exhaust. 

Disadvantages of Turbochargers

  • Turbochargers add to the complexity of a car’s engine. 
  • Turbochargers result in increased pressure and temperature around a car’s engine, typically resulting in shorter lifespans for engines. 
  • Turbocharged cars can be tricky to drive due to a lag in initiation time. 

Turbochargers vs Superchargers 

Although turbos were initially classified as superchargers, there are stark differences between both types of equipment. They both have a similar function in that they use forced induction to increase the power available in an automobile. 

The main difference between both is how they derive energy. While turbos make use of the heat and kinetic energy from the car’s exhaust, superchargers rely on energy from the car’s crankshaft.

Turbos have the advantage of being able to provide more power, fuel economy and cleaner emissions over superchargers. However, the linear production of power form superchargers makes for a smoother experience when bumping up the speed.

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The Future of Road Safety




In the wake of a tragic accident in Las Vegas that claimed nine lives, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) has reignited a crucial conversation about road safety. The board’s recommendation for all new vehicles to be equipped with Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA) technology, as reported by NBC News, marks a significant step towards reducing the alarming rate of speeding-related fatalities on U.S. roads.

Understanding ISA Technology

ISA technology is not a novel concept; it has been a subject of discussion and development for years. Unlike traditional speed limiters that impose a flat speed cap, ISA systems use GPS and sign recognition to adapt to the speed limits of different zones, effectively preventing vehicles from exceeding these limits. This technology represents a more dynamic and context-sensitive approach to managing vehicle speed.

The Road Safety Crisis

The urgency of implementing ISA technology is underscored by the harrowing statistics of road fatalities. In the U.S. alone, over 12,000 people lost their lives in speeding-related crashes last year, with hundreds of thousands more injured. Speeding remains a common factor in auto fatalities, making it a critical target for intervention.

The Hurdles to Adoption

Despite the clear benefits, the adoption of ISA technology faces several challenges. The NTSB’s recommendation, while influential, does not carry regulatory or enforcement power. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), which oversees vehicle safety standards, has yet to adopt this recommendation. Moreover, the response from auto manufacturers has been tepid. The Alliance for Automotive Innovation, representing most domestic auto manufacturers, emphasizes driver education and awareness over technological interventions.

The Argument for ISA

Advocates for ISA technology argue that traditional approaches to curbing speeding, such as driver education and awareness campaigns, have not been sufficiently effective. David Zipper, a visiting fellow at Harvard University’s Kennedy School, points out that focusing on car design and integrated safety technology could be more impactful. The idea is to make it physically impossible for drivers to exceed speed limits by a significant margin, thereby reducing the risk of high-speed accidents.

The Broader Perspective

While ISA technology is a promising tool, it is not a panacea for road safety. Experts like Isabella Chu, associate director of the data core at the Stanford Center for Population Health Sciences, advocate for a holistic approach. This includes revolutionizing road design to prioritize the safety of all road users, not just vehicles. However, as comprehensive road redesigns are a long-term goal, ISA technology serves as an effective interim solution.

The Path Forward

The path to widespread adoption of ISA technology is fraught with challenges, including regulatory hurdles, industry resistance, and public skepticism. However, the potential benefits in terms of lives saved and injuries prevented are too significant to ignore. As Chu optimistically notes, if the argument for ISA technology is just and its merits are clear, there is hope for eventual adoption.

In conclusion, the NTSB’s recommendation for ISA technology is a crucial step towards enhancing road safety. While there are obstacles to its widespread implementation, the potential to save thousands of lives annually makes it a pursuit worth advocating for. As technology continues to advance, it is imperative that we harness its potential to make our roads safer for everyone.

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The 2023 Hyundai Kona: A Comprehensive Review




In the ever-evolving landscape of the automotive industry, the Hyundai Kona has emerged as a formidable player in the small SUV segment. The latest 2023 model has undergone a significant transformation, boasting enhancements that cater to aesthetics, space, safety, and technology. But with a price tag that’s seen a notable increase, does the new Hyundai Kona justify its cost as a small family SUV? Let’s delve into the details.

Design and Aesthetics

The 2023 Hyundai Kona presents a bold statement with its design, reminiscent of futuristic themes akin to Robocop. The vehicle sports giant LED light strips on both the front and rear, complemented by pronounced creases along its sides. The base model, starting at approximately $35,800 drive-away, might raise eyebrows with its use of grey plastic around the wheel arches, intended for protection and a rugged appearance. However, for those seeking a more cohesive look, the $4000 N-Line pack offers body-colored side trims and leather interiors, which could be a worthwhile investment for potential buyers.

Interior and Technology

Upon entering the Kona, one is greeted by a dashboard that exudes modernity. Two 12.3-inch panels merge seamlessly into a curved screen, housing both the infotainment system and a digital driver display. This setup is a strong selling point, alongside convenient features such as a wireless charging pad, wireless CarPlay/Android Auto, and user-friendly climate controls. Despite these advancements, the base model’s interior materials, particularly the seat fabric and cabin plastics, may not live up to everyone’s expectations, feeling somewhat basic for the price point.

Performance and Driving Experience

Under the hood, the Kona retains its 2.0-litre non-turbo four-cylinder petrol engine, with alternative options for a more robust 1.6-litre turbo or a hybrid variant. The standard engine’s performance is adequate, though it may exhibit noise under strain and a CVT auto that can feel jittery at low speeds. Nonetheless, the Kona shines in urban environments with its nimble handling and proves to be a comfortable cruiser on highways, despite the occasional intrusion of aggressive safety alerts and beeps from the lane-keeping system.

Safety and Efficiency

Safety is a paramount aspect of the new Kona, equipped with essential features like blind spot warning and rear traffic alert. However, the entry-level model does miss out on the 3D surround monitor and live blind spot footage found in pricier Premium models. Fuel efficiency is commendable, with real-world figures aligning with Hyundai’s claims. For those prioritizing economy and urban driving, the Kona Hybrid, offering 3.9L/100km, might justify the additional $4000 investment.

Family and Practicality

The Kona’s back seats are a pleasant surprise, offering ample head, leg, and toe room, along with a central armrest, air vents, USB-C ports, and a mobile phone slot. Despite the steep initial cost and the $1995 price tag for five years of servicing, the Kona stands out as one of the top contenders in the small SUV market.

Final Thoughts

The 2023 Hyundai Kona may not be revolutionary, but it maintains its status as a top choice in its class. While some may desire a more refined cabin and a turbo engine for the price, the SUV’s comprehensive features and distinctive style offer significant compensation. The Kona’s dramatic LED light bars, roominess, and safety credentials make it a viable option for families, albeit with a wish for a quieter cabin free from the persistent safety beeps.

In conclusion, the new Hyundai Kona, priced around $36,000 drive-away, presents a package that balances innovation with practicality. Its five-year/unlimited km warranty and comprehensive safety suite, including seven airbags and advanced driver assistance systems, make it a compelling choice for those in the market for a small SUV. With a fuel consumption of 6.6L/100km and a 407L boot capacity, the Kona is well-suited for both daily commutes and family adventures. As the automotive world continues to evolve, the Hyundai Kona seems poised to keep pace, offering a glimpse into the future of family-friendly transportation.

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Tesla’s Technological Revolution: More Than Just Cars




In the fast-paced world of automotive technology, few names resonate as loudly as Tesla. Known for its electric vehicles (EVs), the company has been a trailblazer in integrating cutting-edge technology into its cars. But Tesla’s ambitions go beyond just making electric cars; the company aims to revolutionize vehicle production as a whole. A recent article on Yahoo Autos described Tesla’s ongoing advancements as “an enabler on steroids,” emphasizing the transformative potential these innovations hold for the automotive industry.

While the buzz around Tesla’s technological advancements is palpable, it’s essential to understand that innovation in the automotive sector is no small feat. The industry is laden with regulatory hurdles, safety standards, and consumer expectations, making any significant change a “very challenging task,” as noted by experts. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, vehicle manufacturers must adhere to a plethora of federal motor vehicle safety standards, which can often slow down the pace of innovation.

Tesla’s approach to these challenges is unique because, at its core, it is a technology company. Elon Musk has often emphasized that Tesla’s mission is to accelerate the world’s transition to sustainable energy. This mission is not just about electric cars but encompasses a broader range of technologies, including battery storage and solar energy solutions. In fact, Tesla’s Gigafactory in Nevada is one of the largest battery manufacturing facilities in the world, aiming to produce enough batteries to power 500,000 vehicles annually.

Tesla’s technological advancements have a multiplier effect on the automotive industry. The company’s open-source philosophy, where it has made many of its electric vehicle patents available to the public, encourages other manufacturers to adopt and improve upon Tesla’s technologies. This approach has the potential to expedite the industry’s overall transition to sustainable energy solutions. Industry associations like the Alliance for Automotive Innovation have lauded such collaborative efforts as a way to accelerate technological advancements across the board.

As Tesla continues to innovate, the ripple effects are felt throughout the automotive and technology sectors. The company’s focus on software, exemplified by its Autopilot and Full Self-Driving features, is pushing the boundaries of what is possible in vehicle automation. According to a report by the U.S. Department of Transportation, automated vehicles have the potential to significantly reduce traffic accidents, most of which are caused by human error.

Tesla’s relentless pursuit of technological innovation is not just reshaping its own future but is setting the stage for a broader transformation in the automotive industry. As the lines between automotive and technology companies continue to blur, Tesla stands as a beacon, illuminating the path toward a more sustainable and efficient future for transportation.

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