Four-Week Memory Test that could predict the Risk of Alzheimer’s
Scientists now believe that it may be possible to identify people who have a greater risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease by testing their memory over a four-week period.
Trials have shown that zeroing in on the ability to retain a memory over a longer period could yield potentially more accurate predictors than the traditional memory tests. Traditional memory tests assess people’s memory over a period of half an hour.
University of Bristol researchers led the study which they published in the Alzheimer’s Research and Therapy journal in which they wanted to test using a word list to test people’s memory over four weeks. People were tested for their memory of the list four weeks after hearing it initially.
Those whose memory of the list after four weeks was better off, registered less cognitive decline over the year after. This was true even for those who did not have any problems with cognitive function or memory at the start.
Forty six older people participated in the study. All of them were healthy and their average age was 70.7. The study participants had to perform three memory tasks. Researchers tested t heir delayed recall 30 minutes later and then four weeks later.
They also did the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination III or ACE-III test. ACE-III test is conventionally used to detect cognitive impairments, as well as a brain MRI. One year later, the participants repeated the same ACE-III test to measure their cognitive abilities.
At the end of the study, researchers found that 15 out of 46 participants had experienced a decline in their cognitive abilities, and that the verbal memory tests conducted over the initial period of four weeks would have yielded a better prediction of this decline than the standard memory tests.
After combining the scores from the four-week memory tests together with the results of the MRI brain scan, the researchers found that it was possible to make even more accurate prediction s of cognitive decline.
The MRI brain scans showed that there was a size reduction in the section of the brain that governs memory. This is the part of the brain that gets affected by Alzheimer’s Disease.
By testing long-term memory recall, the researchers found that they could detect Alzheimer’s disease much earlier and achieve better treatment outcomes. Treatments to stop Alzheimer’s disease or slow down its progression are much more effective when given during the early stages of the disease. This is the best time because patients are yet to develop significant problems with their memory.
In the words of Dr. Alfie Wearn, a Research Associate at the Bristol Medical School: Translational Health Sciences: “Our study shows evidence for a low-cost and quick to administer screening tool that could be used to identify the very earliest signs of Alzheimer’s disease. It could also directly speed up the development of effective Alzheimer’s disease therapies, and enable earlier treatment when such therapies are available.”
Dr. Liz Coulthard who is an Associate Professor in Dementia Neurology with the University of Bristol as well as a neurologist with the North Bristol NHS Trust also said this: “It is important to note the participants were healthy older people who did not develop Alzheimer’s during the trial, but some people did show the type of change over the course of a year in memory and thinking that can precede Alzheimer’s disease. Future work will establish whether this test predicts full-blown Alzheimer’s dementia.”
Researchers will now be testing the ability of these tests to detect Alzheimer’s disease in comparison with other cognitive deteriorating diseases. The researchers will be drawing comparisons between long-term memory test results of people who have evidence of Alzheimer’s disease and those without. The evidence is derived from analyzing their cerebrospinal fluid. Even though this method of detecting Alzheimer’s is the most effective, it is also too invasive, and researchers are working on less invasive methods.
The study was conducted with funding from a Wellcome Trust PhD study scholarship award received by Dr. Wearn who is in the Neural Dynamics PhD Programme. It was also funded by the Alzheimer’s Research UK as well as Brace, which is a dementia charity at Southmead Hospital in Bristol.
A New way around Drug Resistant Tuberculosis
Researchers at Purdue University have created a powerful compound that specifically tackles Tuberculosis, a leading killer worldwide.
The scientists came up with a series of inhibitors that destroy TB by targeting a protein necessary for the survival of the TB molecule.
Tuberculosis destabilizes the immunity of patients with the help of Protein Tyrosine Phosphates B (mPTPB). Their findings were published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry.
“The death toll from TB is particularly high because of drug-resistant strains,” said Zhong-Yin Zhang, distinguished professor and head of Purdue’s Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology and director of Purdue Institute for Drug Discovery. “These inhibitors are part of a promising new approach to developing TB therapeutic agents with novel targets and mechanisms of action to help save more lives.”
Right now, doctors rely on antibiotic preparations to treat Tuberculosis. The problem is that many patients don’t complete their dose of antibiotics and this non-adherence leads to the development of drug resistant tuberculosis.
“We developed a platform to target mPTPB for novel anti-TB agents that builds on technologies we pioneered to modulate abnormal protein tyrosine phosphatase activity for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, diabetes and autoimmune disorders,” Zhang elaborated.
According to Zhang, the inhibitors’ have unique properties that make them incredibly useful. They have a lighter molecular weight and superior metabolic stability. They give scientists an excellent opportunity to create better treatments for Tuberculosis.
The visionary scientists are already working to patent the exciting new technology. The hunt is on for partners who will work with Purdue to further the development of the new technology. This is together with the Purdue Research Foundation Office of Technology Commercialization.
A New Era Diagnosing Parkinson’s
Scientists are on the verge of introducing a cheaper, faster, and completely painless test for Parkinson’s.
The researchers based at the University of Manchester said the new test which is already in sight, will herald a new era in diagnosing Parkinson’s disease.
A research paper published in the journal Nature Communications details the researchers’ findings that demonstrate hope in a new way of diagnosing Parkinson’s that is simple and painless – a skin swab.
The test examines compounds in the skin’s natural oil called sebum which is not the same in people who have Parkinson’s. Sebum is a protective oily layer on human skin.
“We believe that our results are an extremely encouraging step towards tests that could be used to help diagnose and monitor Parkinson’s,” explained University of Manchester Prof Perdita Barran.
“Not only is the test quick, simple and painless but it should also be extremely cost-effective because it uses existing technology that is already widely available.
“We are now looking to take our findings forwards to refine the test to improve accuracy even further and to take steps towards making this a test that can be used in the NHS and to develop more precise diagnostics and better treatment for this debilitating condition.”
The team worked with 500 sebum samples. All of them were extracted from people’s upper backs. Some of the subjects had Parkinson’s and some did not.
The scientists used mass spectrometry to isolate 10 chemical compounds that become reduced or elevated when the person has Parkinson’s.
They could diagnose people with Parkinson’s with an accuracy of 85%.
Because Parkinson’s takes so long to progress, it can take years for people to visit a doctor because the symptoms don’t become noticeable for years.
Specialists use a DaTscan to see whether the brain is losing dopamine-producing brain cells. This means that a patient is developing Parkinson’s disease.
The trouble is that there are other, more rare neurological conditions that cause the same loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. This makes the Parkinson’s diagnoses more complicated.
Around a quarter of people living with Parkinson’s in the UK were misdiagnosed with something else first, according to a survey of more than 2,000 people living with Parkinson’s in the UK.
56-year-old Daxa Kalayci is a Leicester native who has known that she was living with Parkinson’s since her diagnosis in September 2019. In the four years before that that, Kalayci had been misdiagnosed several times over.
“This test could be a game-changer for people living with Parkinson’s and searching for answers, like I was,” she quipped.
“I am so happy with this news because it will mean that in future people won’t have to experience the anxiety of multiple appointments, long waiting times and sleepless nights.
“The sooner this test is available, the better. Anything that can help people looking for a diagnosis is a bonus.”
Scientists will Soon spot Diseases and find exoplanets with super Tiny photonic devices
Researchers working in Sweden have created a microcomb capable of detecting diseases faster and making optical communications systems more efficient, among other exciting applications.
The scientists at the Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden have built the photonic device (microcomb) with the capability to produce optical frequencies on a micro resonator – a minute optical cavity.
Effectively, the microcomb is like a ruler of light that measures frequencies with extreme accuracy.
The microcomb generates an array of optical frequencies whose colors are evenly distributed, making it more or less a ruler of light that measures and produces frequencies with extreme accuracy.
The researchers used a chip to develop a new microcomb based on two micro resonators instead of one. The interaction between the two micro resonators is similar to atoms that bind together to create a diatomic molecule known as a photonic molecule.
The microcomb is a device that is readable and capable of being tuned as well as being replicated into something multiple times more efficient than the best devices available at the moment.
The results are extremely significant. “The reason why the results are important is that they represent a unique combination of characteristics, in terms of efficiency, low-power operation and control, that are unprecedented in the field,” explained PhD candidate Óskar Bjarki Helgason.
This is by no means the first time that scientists have created a microcomb on a chip, but it is definitely the first time that scientists have deployed a second micro resonator to beat many of the limitations that have never been surmounted before.
The arrangement has created a number of unique characteristics. The microcomb is so small that it can sit on the tip of a human hair and leaves relatively wide gaps between its teeth.
These wide teeth mean that engineers and researchers have massive opportunities to explore the possibilities.
The microcomb is capable of making optical communication systems vastly more efficient by replacing many lasers with a single microcomb placed in data centers.
The microcombs have great potential for use in lidar to power self-driving vehicles where they can be deployed to record distances, or to calibrate spectrographs deployed in astronomical observations.
Microcombs are also ideal for making optical clocks more accurate as well as improving health monitoring apps in mobile phones, and increasing the accuracy of diagnostic tests that rely on analyzing exhaled air.
“For the technology to be practical and find its use outside the lab, we need to co-integrate additional elements with the micro resonators, such as lasers, modulators, and control electronics,” explained Dr Victor Torres-Company, who is in charge of the Ultrafast Photonics Laboratory at Chalmers University. “This is a huge challenge, that requires maybe five to 10 years and an investment in engineering research, but I am convinced that it will happen.
“The most interesting advances and applications are the ones that we have not even conceived of yet. This will likely be enabled by the possibility of having multiple microcombs on the same chip. What could we achieve with tens of microcombs that we cannot do with one?”
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